Global Warming is Caused by Ozone Depletion, Not Greenhouse Gases

In fact, as explained on this website, it appears to be physically impossible
for greenhouse gases to cause significant global warming

Average global temperatures were statistically constant from 1998 through 2013 while greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise sharply. This stark divergence, plus new insight into the physics of sunlight, suggests that greenhouse gases are not causing global warming. Depletion of the ozone layer, however, explains all observations of global warming quite clearly.

Greenhouse gas theory is based on an erroneous assumption made 150 years ago, that radiant thermal energy is additive. Sunlight is transmitted as frequency, just like the signals from your local television or radio station, not as waves as widely assumed. Solar energy reaching Earth when ozone is depleted is 48 times hotter than terrestrial energy absorbed by greenhouse gases. There simply is not enough energy absorbed by greenhouse gases for them to cause global warming. Plus carbon dioxide, for example, makes up only 0.04% of the atmosphere, and therefore has very limited heat capacity.

Ozone is destroyed by chlorine released from manufactured chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFCs) used widely since 1965 as refrigerants, spray-can propellants, solvents, and fire suppressants. Increasing production of CFCs was stopped by 1993 as a result of the United Nations Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. This stopped increasing ozone depletion by 1995, stopping increases in global temperature by 1998. Ozone depletion caused by CFCs explains the onset and termination of recent global warming.

Ozone is also depleted by chlorine and bromine gases emitted by active volcanoes, explaining many of the recent regional details in climate change as well as climate change throughout Earth’s history. Explosive volcanoes form aerosols near the ozone layer, reflecting sunlight and cooling Earth. But effusive volcanoes common in Hawaii and Iceland, deplete the ozone layer causing global warming.

This is good news. We can develop all available sources of energy to meet growing demand without worrying about greenhouse gas emissions. But we do need to find ways to reduce pollution, especially in China, India, and much of Southeast Asia.

Ozone depletion increases the risks of sunburn and skin cancer. Understanding that global warming is caused by ozone depletion, not greenhouse gases, has major implications for investments in energy.


The ozone-depletion theory of global warming provides, for the first time, a clear, straight-forward explanation for observations not easily explained by greenhouse-gas theory. Specifically:

  1. Why global mean surface temperatures began to rise around 1970 after having been relatively constant since 1945.
  2. Why global mean surface temperatures have been essentially constant since 1998.
  3. Why the heat content of the oceans continues to rise even though surface temperatures have remained nearly constant.
  4. Why the greatest warming observed since 1970 has been in the locations and at the times when ozone depletion was greatest.
  5. Why warming is greatest in polar regions.
  6. Why temperatures were unusually high and drought unusually severe throughout much of North America in 2012 and 2013 while flooding was a severe problem in Europe.
  7. Why the “Dust Bowl” drought in the early 1930s is similar to the 2012-2013 drought.
  8. Why ice ages occur and why they end.
  9. Why climate was warmed suddenly at specific times throughout geologic history.

This website documents extensive observations, analysis, and discussion of the distribution of ozone, the locations and times of ozone depletion, the relationships of ozone concentrations to ozone depleting substances, and the implications for global climate change. It also discusses issues related to greenhouse gases and the energy contained in radiation.


Tips for using this website

This website is designed for climate scientists, but it covers a wide variety of scientific specialties. Therefore I have tried to make it accessible to non-specialists by providing more detailed description and by providing hyperlinks, typically to Wikipedia, for any technical word critical to understanding the issues. Simply click on the word and read the introductory paragraphs to learn about the word’s meaning in the context of this website.

The science described on this website is relatively straightforward and easy to understand. But some pages such as “Follow the energy” may take many readings and considerable work in order to understand the concepts clearly. This website is based on observational data, not mathematical equations or models. Ultimately equations and models will be needed to quantify the details, but the first step is to get the basic concepts right.

Click on any reference to open it or to obtain further details about the reference in a new window. Clicking on “PDF” after the reference will download a pdf version.

The text describing a figure typically begins next to the top of the figure except where limited by layout considerations when printing pages. Click on any figure to open a new window containing a larger version of the figure, a more complete description, and appropriate credits and references.

The menu buttons at the top of each webpage connect you directly to each of the key issues described in Overview. The Next button at the bottom of each webpage will take you through these issues in the same sequence as the menu buttons at the top of the page. I suggest that you start with The Bottom Line, which lists the primary conclusions.

This website is designed for all common browsers, utilizing up to the maximum screen size available on any desktop, portable, or tablet computer as well as on modern cellular telephones. Use a browser window size that works best for you. You can increase the font size in most browsers by holding down the Ctrl key and pressing “=” and decrease the font size by holding down the Ctrl key and pressing “-“.

Last updated on April 29th, 2021,    © 2023 Peter L. Ward. All Rights Reserved